Thursday, September 29, 2022

How Do You Know If Police Are Looking For You

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Straight To The Source

10 Things Cops Look For When They Pull You Over

Unlike, say, your Google Search history , police will most likely attempt to access your browsing history by pulling it from your machine, whether thats a desktop computer or a smartphone.

To access whats stored on your phone, police use mobile forensics software called Cellebrite, which can pull all types of data that you may not even know is lingering in the dark corners of your devices memory. And similar tools exist for PCs as well, giving law enforcement some CSI: Cyber-level capabilities.

The Cellebrite software allows police to directly download browsing history from a suspects cellphone, says Lacambra. Theres no need to go to a third-party internet service provider to get this information. With a desktop, the browsing history is often stored locally. There is negligible difference in the digital footprints left behind when web browsing via desktop or mobile device.

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The Police Don’t Have The Right To Look Through Your Phone Even When You’re In Custody

Unless you give your express consent or there is a warrant, the police do not have the right to look through the contents of your phoneeven when you’re in their custody. This was decided in the landmark Riley v. California case in 2014, for which Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr. decided that, since “digital data stored on a cell phone cannot itself be used as a weapon to harm an arresting officer or to effectuate the arrestee’s escape,” there is no immediate need for an officer to access the contents of a person’s digital devices.

Q: Can I Call My Consulate If I Am Arrested

A: Yes. Non-citizens arrested in the U.S. have the right to call their consulate or to have the law enforcement officer tell the consulate of your arrest. Law enforcement must let your con- sulate visit or speak with you if consular officials decide to do so. Your consulate might help you find a lawyer or offer other help.

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When Does The Right Of Access Not Apply

Schedule 2, Part 2, Paragraph 14 of the Data Protection Act 2018 states that:

The listed GDPR provisions do not apply to personal data processed by an individual acting in a judicial capacity or a court or tribunal acting in its judicial capacity.

This means that, for example, a judge’s handwritten notes prepared for legal proceedings are exempt from disclosure under the right of access.

You cannot request personal data that forms part of a judicial decision or in documents relating to an investigation or proceedings which have been created by or on behalf of a court of other judicial authority. This is because there are other access routes through which you can obtain this information the Criminal Procedure Rules – which govern the disclosure of material for cases going through the court process.

The law also allows the police to withhold information in some circumstances. For instance, they can restrict your right to access if this is necessary for the prevention, detection, investigation or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties.

In addition, the police may also have to edit the information they send you to remove information about other people.

When Can Police Legally Enter My Home

10 Facts To Know About Police Searches
  • If the officers have a search warrant or an arrest warrant for someone who lives at the residence, they may enter even without your permission.

  • If there is a reason to believe someone is injured or in danger, officers may enter without your permission.

  • If you verbally agree to let the officers enter or search your residence, the officers may do so. A third party may not consent on your behalf.

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Can The Police Search My Body

The police can only search your body without a search warrant if they reasonably believe you are carrying drugs or an offensive weapon. They can also search you for anything that can help you get away or harm someone if youve been arrested.

If youre being searched under the Misuse of Drugs Act , the police must tell you so and identify themselves.

If the police want to strip search you, it must be justified, and you must be searched by a police officer of the same sex. For example, if you are being searched and are a female, you should be searched by a female police officer, or you can ask to be searched by a female police officer.

Of Letters And Records

You may receive a subpoena or a target letter. This is evidence that youre under criminal investigation.

If no one has contacted you yet, you could ask a private investigator to check criminal databases. Investigators would have clearances that help them access records not available to the public.

Visit the district attorneys office to know if you have a pending court case. However, you shouldnt normally have to do this because they will send you a notice to appear in court.

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What If I Find An Arrest Warrant On Someone I Know

I mean do you like the person?

If you like the person, I would bring it up with them and try to help them figure out their legal options. If you dont like the person Tip-off the law agency that would have jurisdiction to arrest them.

Of course, if you ask to remain anonymous, you usually will remain anonymous. But Ive definitely had incidents where the cops did tell the person I called them, even after I asked to remain anonymous. And this person lashed out by reporting me to the cops for a fake crime. The person who tipped them didnt remain anonymous, either.

So just keep that in mind.

If you dont want to call in and risk backlash, many agencies have anonymous tip forms you can fill out online.

Incorrect Information On Arrest Warrants

Can the Police STOP You For….

Sometimes facts are misstated, incorrect, or otherwise dont hold water. For example, the location could be wrong, the name on the warrant could be misspelled, or you can otherwise prove the warrant isnt for you. Or that theyre violating one of the mandates on the warrant. Like theyre arresting you at 6:30 pm, which is outside of hours on the warrant.

In an ideal scenario, police officers should show you your arrest warrant, but they dont always. If you can prove that the warrant isnt for you, the police shouldnt proceed with the arrest. But that also isnt always the case.

However, it should be noted that clerical errors arent enough to invalidate an arrest warrant. If an arrest warrant says Jonh instead of John, that wouldnt be enough. But if it said 134 North St, when it was should be 1340 North Rd, that might do it. At least for now. Providing both locations actually exist.

There are, however, some cases where running a check for an arrest warrant wont help you.

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Consenting To A Search

The police can also search you if you give them “informed consent”. This means you understand the possible consequences of the search and you agree to let them search you. The search must be limited to whatyou have consented to. The police must tell you the reasons why they want to search. But when they ask for your consent, the police only have to give the reasons they know about at the time.

So if you do not put limits on how the police can use what they find, they may be able to use it against you in the future. For example, they could keep a DNA sample that you give them and check it in a futureinvestigation.

If You Refuse To Offer The Password Can Police Still Search Your Cellphone

Yes, even if you refuse to give police the password to your phone, police have ways to get to the information inside. As one man with an extremely well-protected phone found out in a case out of Richmond, police have specialized branches that can crack into the toughest phones.

The case involved two BlackBerry phones that Richmond RCMP sent to the Mounties Technical Crime Branch in Ottawa. Despite not having a warrant to search the phone, the Mounties seized it and spent two years trying to crack one of the phones due to technology restrictions at the time. The RCMP ended up accessing the phone by bypassing the password and creating an exact copy of the devices memory, and the evidence inside was later determined to be admissible in court.

One of the issues raised was whether police were right to send the phone off for a thorough examination at a laboratory and the length of time police spent trying to get inside the phone. After all, seizing the phone and then sending it to a lab is no longer just a simple search by the side of the road. The court, however, determined that police were allowed to take their time to send the phone away to have it analyzed, and said this:

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Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

Standardized tests have the backing and support of the scientific community as to its reliability, at least to some extent. It also means that the officers who administer these tests must do so according to a published or established protocol or their validity will be attacked.

Why You Should Politely Decline To Take The FSTs

California courts allow an officer to testify that a defendants poor performance on a standardized FST indicates a blood alcohol concentration level of at least 0.08% or higher, though this is not a mandatory presumption2.

What are the 3 standardized field sobriety tests that are accepted as reliable indicators of impairment?

  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus

The HGN Test

One standard test and commonly used FST used by many officers is the HGN or horizontal gaze nystagmus test. It is considered one of the more reliable indicators of intoxication and an officer may testify as to his or her observations as indicating that the suspect was under the influence so long as a proper foundation is established by the prosecution3.

What Does The HGN Test Consist of?

The test generally consists of the officer holding a pencil, penlight or other object known as a stimulus in front of your eyes and asking you to track it as he or she moves it from side to side.

What Are The Requirements Of The Walk And Turn Test?

The test has 8 indicators of possible impairment that an officer is to be observing:

Looking For Arrest Warrants Online For Free

Police Dept. Creates Massive/Embarrassing National PR ...

This part is so super important: almost no online database resources exist for free.

If you want to look online for an arrest warrant, youre unlikely to find one for free because

  • Arrest warrants dont become publicly available until after charges have been filed. Which takes substantially longer and you wouldve received something in the mail about your charges anyway.
  • If its a potential felony charge or higher, they wont file charges without an arrest if theres a warrant. Which means if youre facing a felony, you wont have access to the warrant in most cases.
  • The majority of sites dont partner with law enforcement to get arrest warrants online in a searchable public database. And given that warrants only become publicly available after charges have been brought see above points.
  • Most of these online services are equivalent to an unprofessional background check. Background checks are never free.
  • But if that doesnt deter you, thats perfectly fine. Just dont expect the arrest warrant search to be free online. Even if it says it is, I can almost guarantee you its not. However, The Most Wanted is the only one weve found as far as databases are concerned.

    But theres a huge catch: Its only for warrants out in Indiana.

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    V Rights At Airports And Other Ports Of Entry Into The United States

    REMEMBER: It is illegal for law enforcement officers to perform any stops, searches, detentions or removals based solely on your race, national origin, religion, sex or ethnicity. However, Customs and Border Protection officials can stop you based on citizenship or travel itinerary at the border and search all bags.

    You Dont Have To Invite Them In

    If the police show up at your door without a warrant , you dont have to invite them in. You dont even have to talk to them, and you can ask them to leave. In fact, criminal lawyers advise that you dont speak to them and ask them to leave. While you may think that it will appear youre hiding something, and while it may even appear that you are, none of that is evidence of anything and cant be used against you for any purpose.

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    It’s Also Possible For Them To Get Access To Your Dna Through Dna Testing Kit Companies

    Think twice before sending your DNA in to get tested by a company like 23andMe or Ancestry. Though it’s extremely uncommon, DNA-testing companies like these make it clear on their websites that they will comply with government and law enforcement requests for user information and DNA samples. In 2018, a sample from an ancestry website even helped Sacramento authorities catch the infamous Golden State Killer.

    Q: Can Law Enforcement Officers Search My Home Or Office

    5 Things You Shouldn’t Tell Police If Pulled Over For A DUI

    A: Law enforcement officers can search your home only if they have a warrant or your consent. In your absence, the police can search your home based on the consent of your roommate or a guest if the police reasonably believe that person has the authority to consent. Law enforcement officers can search your office only if they have a warrant or the consent of the employ- er. If your employer consents to a search of your office, law enforcement officers can search your workspace whether you consent or not.

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    Q: What If Law Enforcement Officers Stop Me On The Street

    A: You do not have to answer any questions. You can say, I do not want to talk to you and walk away calmly. Or, if you do not feel comfortable doing that, you can ask if you are free to go. If the answer is yes, you can consider just walking away. Do not run from the officer. If the officer says you are not under arrest, but you are not free to go, then you are being detained. Being detained is not the same as being arrested, though an arrest could follow. The police can pat down the outside of your clothing only if they have reasonable suspicion that you might be armed and dan- gerous. If they search any more than this, say clearly, I do not consent to a search. If they keep searching anyway, do not physically resist them. You do not need to answer any questions if you are detained or arrested, except that the police may ask for your name once you have been detained, and you can be arrested in some states for refusing to provide it.

    The Police Want To Speak With Me And Get My Side Of The Story I Think They Are Investigating Me For A Criminal Offence What Should I Know

    If the police think a person may have committed an offence, it is not unusual for them to contact the person and ask them to give a statement about the incident. They may call and say they want to set up a meeting to discuss an incident. Or they may say that they want to give you a chance to tell your side of the story so they can decide how they are going to handle things. They may say this is your opportunity to tell us what happened or warn you that if you do not speak with me, I will have to assume everything told me is true, and thats how I will write my report.

    What the police the police will not tell you, however, is: We want you to speak with us because we hope that you will tell us something that can be used against you. It is important to remember that by the time the police have contacted you and asked to meet with them, the police may have already decided to arrest you and lay a charge against you. While there is a chance you could tell the police something that causes them to decide not to charge you, it is also possible that you will say something that hurts your ability to defend yourself. There may be another side to the story, but if the police are told two different versions of what happened, they will often decide to lay a criminal charge and let the matter get sorted out in court.

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    When Can The Police Legally Search Me My Car My House Or My Belongings

    I was recently perusing through an online blog that focused on the issue of police searches, and I was amazed at how much incorrect information was being exchanged by the various “bloggers” involved in that discussion. More than one participant referred to officers conducting searches for any reason as Nazis or Fascists without really offering anything to the discussion, so their comments were discounted. Several quoted the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution apparently without even reading the words or knowing what they meant. While everyone has and is certainly entitled to their own opinions and interpretations involving searches conducted by law enforcement, I thought the time was ripe to explain from my perspective the role that searches play in police activities and hopefully offer some useful information. It is not my intent, nor necessarily my desire, to alter the opinion of those who oppose searches of any kind or in any context made by the police. However, I do hope to at least explain that the police may lawfully search in many situations and offer reasoning as to why they may, but at the same time show that we do not have blanket search authority at any time we want to search. Our actions are constrained by constitutional and statutory law and by ever changing case law.

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